Jean Mahseredjian, 1/22/2021 1:24:00 PM
This document presents an overview of available options in EMTP®-EMTPWorks. More details can be found in other documents and help tools.
Since the top view to all EMTP® simulations is the graphical user interface EMTPWorks, the main objective of this document is to show how required network data can be assembled and what is the expressive power of EMTPWorks for managing EMTP® simulations.
The picture of Figure 1 is showing a simple circuit assembled in EMTPWorks. The various parts, also called devices, are dragged in from the parts library (Parts palette shown on the right hand side by default) into the design, placed and connected using signals.
EMTPWorks allows working at different levels: from simple designs to extremely large designs and from simple drawings to customized drawings.
Figure 1 A simple (see simple.ecf in Examples\ApplicationCases\simple) circuit assembled in EMTPWorks
The design shown in Figure 1 has a top level circuit. This is called a top circuit. A design can be organized on one or more pages: design pages. The design may also have one or more subcircuits. Subcircuits may also contain one or more subcircuits. The circuits are the children of the design.
The top part of the circuit above is shown in Figure 2. All devices, signals and names can be clicked and right-clicked for entering data or controlling other aspects. The circuit itself also has a right-click menu.
Right and bottom elevator bars can be used to move around a large circuit. The Zoom tool (View ribbon) can be used to zoom and unzoom. The useful zoom keyboard shortcuts are CTRL-SHIFT-E (enlarge) and CTRL-SHIFT-R (reduce).
Panning is available by holding the CTRL key and clicking and holding anywhere in the circuit page. The users can also select this option directly from the Zoom tool found in the View ribbon.
The size of the circuit page can be changed using the menus in “Options>Design”. The default size is the size taken from the connected printer.
The devices are given an automatic visible name. This name can be changed by double-clicking on the name. The signals are given an automatic name. The user can change a signal name by right-clicking on the signal name or by selecting the Name tool (see Home ribbon Tools section) and clicking on the signal or signal name. Signal naming is generally less useful than device naming. It should be only used for creating some specific connections by name as discussed further in this document. Signal naming is not a good practice in a graphical user interface. EMTPWorks has internal automatic methods for maintaining internal signal names and connectivity.
Meaningful naming is key to making designs decipherable and verifiable by self and by others. Meaning is added when renaming key devices to indicate more precisely their specific function in the diagram.
Figure 2 Simple first example
After creating the design circuit of Figure 2 the following steps must be followed to run a simulation:
1 Enter data into devices (double-click each device) according to the simulated circuit.
2 Select the menu “Simulate>Advanced>Simulation Options” and enter the simulation parameters.
3 Push the Run button in the Simulate ribbon to start the simulation.
The simulation progress panel (also called wait bar) is appearing at the bottom of the design in Figure 1.
When the simulation ends, simulation results saved as waveforms can be visualized using waveform visualization tools. The program also generates output webs, that can be accessed from the wait bar (see “Case web” and “Steady-State web” buttons in Figure 1.
The default waveform visualization and analysis tool is called ScopeView. It can be started by clicking on the command button “View Scopes with ScopeView” found in the Scopes group of the Simulate ribbon.
Another waveform visualization tool is available by clicking on the “View Scopes with MPLOT” button found in the same Scopes group. The MPLOT command is also available from the right-click menu (right-click on an empty space) of the circuit.
When the Run button is pushed, EMTPWorks creates a Netlist file and submits it to the EMTP® computational engine. The Netlist file contains only specific information needed by EMTP® to simulate the design. The entire design with all other data including geographical positions, is saved into a design file with the extension “.ecf”.
More details on input/output files can be found in the help section of the “Simulate>Advanced>View Output Files” panel.
The help section of the menu “Simulate>Advanced>Simulation Options” is a starting point for learning about EMTP® simulation methods. Each device is also given its own help section. The best approach for learning is to start by reading the current document and then by exploring available menus and options. Help hyperlinks and tabs are available everywhere.
Devices are dragged in from the Parts Library (on the right hand side of EMTPWorks main window, see Figure 1) and placed on the Design circuit at the desired location. The Parts Library can be turned on and off from the View ribbon (View>Panels>Parts Library). Each device has a default orientation in its library. The orientation can be changed after placement in the circuit. The initial orientation can be also changed from the Home ribbon menu Operations>Orientation.
Once a device is positioned in a circuit it can be moved around using the mouse key or the keyboard arrow keys. When a device moves it tries to maintain existing connectivity, but this is a complex task and the user may have to redo connectivity manually under some conditions.
A device may have no pins, one or more pins. A two-pin device is shown in Figure 3. The left-pin or the pin close to the “+” sign is also called a k-pin. The right-pin or the other pin, is also called an m-pin. The plus “+” sign is used to provide polarity for power devices.
Figure 3 A device with two pins
Pins can be clicked on to select. There is also a right-click menu.
The design may have network (circuit) devices: electrical devices or simulated devices recognized in EMTP®. The libraries in the “Parts by Library” palette allow to select the circuit devices. There are also various other types of devices. The options.clf library, for example, has devices for selecting EMTP® simulation options and the symbols.clf library has several devices for symbol editing.
A Symbol Editor function invoked through the device right-click menu “Edit Symbol”, can be used to edit (modify) a device’s symbol (drawing).
Some devices have color coding options. The voltage source in Figure 2 is shown with a red line to indicate that it is active in the steady-state solution of EMTP®.
Devices have a right-click menu. In most cases there is also a double-click method. If the device of Figure 3 is double-clicked the Properties GUI of Figure 4 appears. This is called the device data web. The data web is organized using data tabs. Data tabs have data input fields. The data web is programmed using DHTML. The appearing web can be located on the user’s computer or anywhere on the internet.
Figure 4 The data tabs of the RLC device
Data entered in data fields is tested when the user unclicks a field. Data is also tested when moving between tabs and clicking on the OK button. The blue color is for existing data. When a data field is unclicked, the olive color indicates accepted data and the red color signals a corrected problem. An arbitrary correction is applied in most cases and the user must verify the faulty field.
The OK button registers all data changes.
Almost all data fields have default data. Data errors can revert to default data.
Tooltips and hyperlinks are provided everywhere in data tabs. To learn about a given device model parameter (such as R) the user can move the mouse pointer over the parameter’s name. This is shown in Figure 5. The tooltip panel stays up for an amount of time fixed by the operating system. The user can continue moving the mouse pointer to keep the tooltip up indefinitely. For some longer tooltips a right-click method is available to keep it up until the user clicks anywhere else into the window. More help is available through hyperlinks and/or in the Help tab.
Figure 5 The tooltip option
Another programming method is the usage of named values (programmed value or variable data). A named value is a string enclosed between two ‘#’ characters and entered in device data fields instead of entering numeric values. Example:
This is a data programming method. In this version of EMTP®-EMTPWorks it is not allowed to use named values for devices appearing in the top circuit. More details on this approach can be found in the documentation of subnetwork masking methods (see section 5.2).
Usage of named values is part of the open architecture methods available in EMTPWorks. Entered data is being determined only after making data substitutions and no testing is available in data tabs. Usage of such options can result in major data errors if the user does not follow the data rules and limitations. Only limited testing is available on EMTP® side for the final device data.
Figure 6 Using the equality sign for simple expressions
The Attribute Probe tool (also called sniffer) can be used to provide quick info on a device. To activate this option, it is needed to click on the Attribute Probe tool (Home>Tools) and then single-click on any device. The spacebar deactivates.
In addition to the double-click method, each device has a right-click menu (Figure 7) with submenus.
- Copy/Paste: This feature is used to copy and paste device data (simulation data) between devices of the same type.
- Device Data: This is the same as double-clicking on the device symbol.
- Extras/Summary: Various options related to the device. For most devices this menu calls a script for preparing and showing data summary on the device using its attributes. Some devices do not provide a script for this menu item.
- Steady-State view: selections for steady-state view options of the device.
- Exclude/Include: The Exclude action will exclude the selected device from the Netlist, it will not be seen by EMTP® and will not be part of the simulation. It becomes an open circuit. Excluded devices have a grey color code. The Include action will revert to Include back the device.
- Properties: Shows device info, this is the same as selecting the device and using CTRL-I.
- Copy name to clipboard: Copies the device name to the clipboard for a subsequent paste (Ctrl+V) command.
- Attributes: Provides access to device attributes.
- Name: Another method for entering the device name.
- Line Colour: Changes the line color of the device.
- Fill Colour: Changes the fill color of the device.
The remaining options are self-explanatory.
The “Edit Symbol” option starts the EMTPWorks symbol editor and allows modifying the device symbol.
The “Part” menu is not shown for all devices. It will be used in future versions of EMTPWorks for part switching from library.
For applying Exclude/Include actions to several devices selected by clicking while holding down the SHIFT button or using the mouse bounding box selection method: select the Design menu “Device Operations>Exclude” or “Device Operations>Include”.
Other global functions for both signals and devices are available through the Design menu.
Figure 7 The device right-click menus
A design circuit can hold various device types. EMTP® can recognize option devices and simulated devices. There are also model data function devices.
The primitive devices are recognized in EMTP® using the Part device attribute. The primitive devices can be of power type or control type. A power type device is for modeling an actual physical electrical component. A primitive control type device is a block diagram device. It can be used to simulate actual control system behavior or for creating electrical network models using function blocks.
Power type devices are devices with power pins. Such as the device of Figure 3.
Control type devices are devices with control pins. Such a device is shown in Figure 8. The control type devices are interfaced with power type devices using sensors (meters) and actuators.
Figure 8 A primitive control type device
A control component is built in EMTPWorks as a directed graph containing elements joined by oriented signals, together forming a block-diagram description of the component to be represented. An example is shown in Figure 9.
Figure 9 Sample control diagram
In a lot of designs it is preferable to present the control function in a procedural manner. This can be achieved using the virtual connection method described below. The design of Figure 10 is functionally identical to the one in Figure 9.
Figure 10 Virtual connection method for procedural assembly of a control diagram
There are currently 3 pin types (also called Pin Functions): Power-pin, Input-pin and Output-pin. The Power-pin is for power devices. A control device may have input pins and/or output pins.
Signals connected to control device pins are control signals and do not connect to power pins directly, meter (sensor) functions are needed. An example of sensor device is shown in Figure 11. It has a power pin that allows connecting to a power signal. It also has an output pin that allows connecting into a control device.
Figure 11 A device with power and output pins: v(t) probe from meters.clf
Some devices may have control and power pins. This is the case of the controlled thyristor found in the switches.clf library:
It has two power pins and one control pin which is for the firing signal.
Subcircuits may have mixed pin types.
Signals connected to output pins can only connect to input pins.
Pins that can be interconnected are called compatible pins.
Device pin settings are made during the device creation using the Symbol Editor.
Device attributes are used for controlling various device properties. They constitute the device’s memory and provide behavior rules. The device attributes are accessible through the right-click device menu. It is only for advanced usage and programming in the EMTPWorks environment. Erroneous usage can corrupt device data and create other problems, so extreme caution must be used when manipulating attribute data.
An example of simple usage is for altering the default name prefix. If it is desired to change the name prefix of the RLC device shown in Figure 3:
1 right click on the device
2 select Attributes
3 scroll down to locate the attribute Name.Prefix and select it by single-click
4 change to “Load”, for example
5 click on Done
Next time this device is copied (CTRL-C) or duplicated (CTRL-D) it will change its name prefix to “Load”.
The device attributes used for saving EMTP® data into the design and sending into the Netlist file are:
Device data formats are documented in the Help section of each device. Advanced users can apply programming methods by directly entering device data through its attribute. This is only for advanced usage.
Other important device attributes are:
§ Description: used for saving and making visible device scope requests or initialization options
§ DrawingData: used for saving device drawing data
§ Exclude: used for excluding a device from the Netlist
§ FormData: used for maintaining device data not used in the Netlist of copies of various data fields
§ Function: when set to “OPTION” makes a device for saving and sending simulation options
§ Name: device’s name
§ Name.Prefix: device’s name prefix
§ Part: a unique device identification
§ Script.Info.Dev the script started from the “Extras/Summary” right-click menu item
§ Script.Open.Dev the script started when the device is double-clicked
§ Value: for showing device data in the circuit page
The user can also add attributes into a design for performing various data manipulations. Attributes are also part of the template system available in EMTPWorks. A template file can maintain specific attributes and features for creating design customization.
A device may have one or more visible attributes. These are for providing visual feedback for entered data. The RLC device, for example, shows the R, L and C values in the Value attribute. The Description attribute is used to show requested device scopes or indicate manual initialization options. These attributes are automatically filled by device data scripts.
In the example shown below the visible Value attribute shows comma separated R, L and C values respectively. In the Description attribute, “!iv” means that this device has initial conditions (IC) on both voltage and current. As for “?vip” it gives a visual indication that this device has voltage, current and power scopes turned on.
Figure 12 Device with visual attributes for presenting essential data and identifiers
EMTP®-EMTPWorks built-in devices are available from the built-in libraries. Users can create other devices and save in new libraries for later usage in other designs. EMTPWorks has several library options selectable from the “Options>Part Type” menu. Right-clicking on the library parts list provides library maintenance options.
A signal name must be visible to keep its name. The current version of EMTPWorks has the freedom to change user given signal names during rerouting if the signal is not visible. EMTPWorks maintains a default signal naming system. The default signal naming features are modifiable through the menus in “Options>Naming Options”.
Signals connected to control (input or output) pins are control signals. Signals connected to power pins are power signals.
The currently reserved power pin signal name is GND. If a signal is named GND then it is automatically connected to ground (zero-volts). This is only true for power signals.
For control devices the currently reserved signal name is the number 0. If an input signal is given the name 0 then it will take the value 0 for the entire simulation.
If an input signal (connected to an input pin) is not connected to any output signal, EMTP® assumes that its value is always zero.
Generally speaking it is not useful and not recommended to name individual signals manually and to make them visible, unless one needs to create a special reference or apply connection by name (see description below). Most designs can be carried on without naming any signal. The power system bus name is on by default, since in this case the name is a useful reference in the power network diagram.
If it is absolutely needed to apply virtual connections (connections by name) then a better approach is to use page connectors. Page connectors can be used on the same page or on multiple pages (see section 4).
You must clearly understand the rules and consequences on maintaining signal names before heavy usage of such methods. The case of signal names in bundles is more complex and it should be avoided when possible.
EMTPWorks also provides signal connector devices. A built-in signal connector device is the “Ground” device:
The “Ground” device has one pin and its signal name is GND:
The GND name is an enforced signal name. It is the pin name of the “Ground” device which is given the primitive Part type “Signal Connector” in the Symbol Editor. It is illegal to change the name of such a signal manually.
The user can create other signal connector devices using the Symbol Editor. This is useful for making connections by fixing a given signal name through the pin name. In this example the fixed signal name is SOURCE:
The standard method for interconnecting devices is to draw a signal (click near a pin, hold down the mouse pointer and move) line between device pins or to connect into an existing signal from another signal or pin. There are also signal drawing tools that allow starting anywhere on a circuit page and draw. Figure 13 shows the signal drawing tools from the EMTPWorks toolbar “Home>Tools”.
Figure 13 Signal drawing tools
It is also feasible to connect signals using signal names. This is shown in Figure 14. The signal SOURCE is used to connect the upper and lower circuit sections in the design without drawing an actual signal line. This is called a virtual connection or connection by name. The connected by name signal names must be made visible, or this option will not work. The name of a signal can be changed through the right-click signal menu item Name. It is required to check “Apply to all connected segments” to change all virtual connection names.
Signals connected by name are not automatically checked for pin compatibility!
The connection by name method is dangerous and when the user decides to disconnect two or more signals connected by name, then it is needed to make the signal name invisible (uncheck visible). In this case EMTPWorks will normally change the hidden name, but it is recommended to go back, open the name dialog and validate the new name.
Figure 14 Connecting by signal name
A better approach when connection by name is absolutely necessary, is to use Page Connectors (also called Inter-Page Connectors). Page connectors are available in the library “Pseudo Devices.clf”. It is possible to use them for multipage designs or on the same page. The page connector approach is shown in Figure 15. Connection is created by naming the page connector instead of the attached signal.
This approach is more robust and provides visual location feedback (automatic display of page references) on the locations of connected signals. In this case it indicates that 1-B3 (coordinates using design sheet border numbers) the connected signal is found on page 1 at the geographical location B3. The same applies to all pages connectors. The connection is created using the same name for the two page connectors. Two or more page connectors can be used. Page connectors can appear on the same page or on different pages when using multipage designs (see section 4).
Figure 15 Creating a virtual connection using Page Connectors
To turn on the visual location feedback it is needed to go to the menu “Options>Design Preferences” and select the “Page Refs” tab. In this tab the checkbox “Enable Automatic Page References” must be checked. This is shown in the figure below.
Figure 16 Design Preferences for setting up page references used in Page Connector devices
The library “Pseudo Devices.clf” contains other types of page connectors.
In addition to connecting by drawing a signal, a device can be connected to a signal by moving the device near the signal and touching the signal with its compatible pin. This is called connect-by-proximity. Under some circumstances when entire circuit sections or devices are moved near or over other circuit sections, the connect-by-proximity can become a nuisance, and can be turned-off by holding down the CTRL key after starting the move.
A single-click on a signal, highlights the signal and shows its connectivity. A double-click on a signal shows virtual connectivity. A single-click on a signal name highlights its parent signal.
Holding the CTRL button and double-clicking on a device selects the entire interconnected circuit, but not the virtually connected circuit. The selected circuit can be moved around using the mouse pointer (hold down any device and move) or use the keyboard arrow keys.
The signal path can be modified and only parts of a signal can be deleted using the Zap tool. The user can also experiment with:
12. hold SHIFT and draw
13. hold CTRL and draw
14. hold ALT and draw
15. hold CTRL-ALT and draw
Figure 17 Signal paths
The tip of a signal which is not physically connected is a T-shape.
The “View>Redraw” or End button can be used to refresh the design drawing.
The default signal is called a general signal. It is a 1-phase signal. It can be drawn by starting from an existing signal or device pin or by using the “Draw signal tool” shown as the first tool button in Figure 13.
A control signal can only be a general signal. A power signal can be a: 3-Phase Signal, 3-Phase Bus, Phase A signal, Phase B signal or Phase C signal.
The signal Line Type is selectable through the signal right-click menu item “Line Type”. If any of the signals shown in Figure 2 is right-clicked and set to become a “3-Phase Signal” then EMTPWorks propagates the phase setting to the entire circuit (see Figure 18).
Figure 18 The 3-phase version of the circuit shown in Figure 2
A 3-phase signal internally carries 3 names, one for each phase. For the signal SOURCE shown in Figure 18, the internal names are SOURCEa, SOURCEb and SOURCEc. The same is done for device names. A 3-phase device can be decoupled or internally coupled.
It is allowed to move back to the 1-phase version of a signal, again using the signal “Line Type” option.
The signal propagation may give an error message if at least one device in the circuit does not accept 3-phase signals. The user can go back by selecting Undo (CTRL+Z), the 1-phase devices will become otherwise disconnected in the Netlist and errors may occur.
Some device pins can only be 1-phase (general signal). This the case of a diode model, for example, which exists only as a 1-phase device.
Some device pins can only be 3-phase. This is the case of a 3-phase machine, for example.
The signal drawn from a pin takes its phase property. The user can also create separate signals using the signal drawing tools shown in Figure 13. The second option in this figure is the “Draw 3-phase Bus” tool. A 3-phase bus can only connect to 3-phase signals. It is also allowed connecting to individual phases, as shown in Figure 19.
Figure 19 3-phase bus with color code phase signals
Phase signals are drawn using the phase signal buttons shown in Figure 13. Phase signals are also created by converting a 3-phase signal line type to “Phase A” (or B or C) type.
The 3-phase bus acts as a signal concentrator, it has only one name, but appends the phase character to each phase signal, such BUS1a, BUS1b and BUS1c. If a phase name is changed then the parent bus name is also changed.
Naming a phase signal or bus GND will ground all phase signals. The ground signal GND is not replicated using phase characters.
It is not allowed to connect phase signals of a given 3-phase bus together directly. In Figure 19, for example, phase a will not connect to phase b. There are two options for achieving such connections. The first option is to use an ideal closed switch device. The second option is to use a node shorter (“Node connector”) device created using subcircuits. A similar approach can be used for connecting the 3-phase signal or any phase signals to ground. Several types of node connector devices are available in the library “Pseudo Devices.clf”.
If a phase signal is drawn separately in a design using the “Draw Phase” tool, then its name is internally concatenated with the phase character. In this example:
the actual signal name is BLUEb.
More details on 3-phase and 1-phase signals are given in Figure 20. This design is available in the example three_and_one_phase_diagrams.ecf under the EMTPWorks directory Examples\ShowHow.
The bundle is a special signal that allows gathering and sending several signals through a single channel (or signal bus). It can also act as a multiplexer. The bundle is also used to interconnect device bundle pins. It is a visual concentration of signals.
The bundle uses bundle pins. Signals are connected to bundle pins. Bundle pins are added using the bundle right-click Breakout menu or the keyboard shortcut CTRL-B (Edit Breakout function).
Transmitting through a bundle can become complex and mixed signal types may remain undetected. This feature must be used with caution.
Bundles are drawn using the “Draw Bundle” tool (Draw Signal menu, Home ribbon) from Figure 13. An example is shown in Figure 21. It is important to remember that signals going through a bundle have the bundle name as a prefix. In Figure 21, D1 is actually BUND_D1.
The bundle pin name forces the name of the connecting signal. The signal inherits the bundle pin name when it connects to the pin. The bundle pin signal name is always prefixed by its bundle name.
The right-click command on the bundle of Figure 21 opens the “Edit Breakout” menu shown below. This menu is also accessible through the command “New Breakout” shown in Figure 13. New pins can be entered or selected from this menu. Any number of pins can be selected for establishing connections anywhere on the bundle path. In Figure 21 the breakout pins on the right are created and those on the right are selected.
Changing a bundle pin name manually (double-click on the name and change) will not change the name of the corresponding signal, but will add a new pin in the bundle. In this example changing the name of D1 on the left to NewD actually creates a new pin and abandons the previous connection to D1. The “New Breakout” menu now shows 3 pins (see figure below). This is the case when the bundle pin has been already used as in Figure 21.
Bundle pins can be of type Power-pin, Input-pin or Output-pin. All signal line types are accepted. A pin created using the “New Breakout” has no initial type and inherits its type from the signal connected at a later stage.
As for the case of 3-phase signals, it is not allowed to connect bundle signals together. It is however feasible to use ideal switches as jumpers or to use specific shorting devices (“Node connector” or “Control signal connector” devices are found in the library “Pseudo Devices”).
It is also possible to connect directly into bundles by drawing a signal into the bundle. This method shown in Figure 24. When a signal is directly connected to a bundle, a connection menu (Bundle Connection) appears and allows to specify the connection with signals in the bundle.
When two bundles are connected together, it is necessary to specify the connections between existing signals. This is also performed using Bundle Connection menu that appears automatically when a connection is maded.
Figure 20 EMTPWorks options for 3-phase and 1-phase diagrams
Figure 21 Bundle usage example
Figure 22 “New Breakout” menu
Figure 23 “New Breakout” menu after changing the name of a pin
Figure 24 Connecting directing into a bundle without breakout usage
An EMTPWorks design can have one or more pages.
Steps for adding pages and using page connectors:
1 right-click in the circuit and select the “Pages” menu.
2 give a name to the current page
3 click on “New Page”
4 give a name to the new page
When circuits appearing on one or more pages are interconnected, it is needed to use the same signal names (virtual connections). Before placing page connectors, it is useful to select “Options>Design Preferences” and then “Page Refs”. In the “Page Refs” panel all the checkboxes must be on (see Figure 16).
Page connectors are available in the “Pseudo Devices.clf” library. It is needed to select a “Page Conn Power Signal” for adding page connectors to power signals. If the signal SOURCE is used to connect pages then the circuit pages will give the page connectors shown in Figure 25. The first character is the page number and the following two characters give the geographical position in the page. A right-click selection of “Properties” of a page connector shows all related page connections and allows to jump between page connectors.
a) Page 1
b) Page 2
Figure 25 Page connector usage
Subcircuits are an important design feature. They are used to simplify drawings, to provide encapsulation and to create modules. Another important feature available through subcircuits is masking and user-defined modeling.
EMTPWorks offers several methods for creating subcircuits. Subcircuits can be created from any location in a circuit. It is also possible to make a subcircuit from the entire circuit.
The subcircuit of Figure 26 is created from the switch of Figure 2. The “Options>Subcircuit>Create Subcircuit Block” (CTRL+SHIFT+Q) menu is used to create a subcircuit from parts of a circuit. If port connectors are not placed before using CTRL+SHIFT+Q, then EMTPWorks suggests automatic port positions, such as “Add port connectors to all signals with visible names” or “Add port connectors to all signals with loose ends”.
A subcircuit may have zero, one or more pins. Any pin types can be used.
The top circuit can contain several subcircuits and each subcircuit can also contain subcircuits with unlimited number of levels.
The default subcircuit symbol is a square box. The Symbol Editor can be used to modify the subcircuit symbol.
After creating the subcircuit it can be opened in a separate circuit drawing by double-clicking on its symbol. The available keyboard shortcuts are: “CTRL+SHIFT+I” (in) for getting into the subcircuit and “CTRL+SHIFT+U” (up) for going up.
The first time a subcircuit is entered it is locked. It is needed to unlock the subcircuit for making changes. There are two methods for unlocking: through the “Circuit Info” menu (CTRL+I) or by moving a device in the subcircuit and accepting to unlock from the subsequent panel popup.
Figure 26 Subcircuit FAULT_switch created from the circuit of Figure 2
The contents of FAULT_switch are shown in Figure 27. The square with an X is a device used for pin interface location with the parent circuit.
Figure 27 Subcircuit FAULT_switch
A fundamental feature that must be clearly understood before using subnetworks (subcricuits) is explained below.
When a subcircuit is created and duplicated, EMTPWorks continues keeping only one copy of its internal circuit. Which means that any changes inside one subcircuit are automatically reflected into the other subcircuit instance. EMTP® also sees only one copy of the circuit, but two separate calls. This is similar to programming using a given function from different locations in the program. The two subcircuits of Figure 28 are identical. They have the same Part attribute and same Type name. This is a powerful feature for large designs. If a large number of subcircuit devices of the same type are used in a design, then by changing only one device allows changing all other devices automatically.
Figure 28 Identical subcircuits
The Type name of a device can be found by selecting the device and using the right-click Properties command.
If it desired to detach one subcircuit definition from the other, then the detached subcircuit must be made unique. This is completed through the “Options>Part Type>Make Unique Type” menu. In Figure 29, the subcircuit DEV2 is first created by duplicating DEV1 and then made unique. To ensure circuit data integrity and to manage subcircuits, it is very important to enable visual feedback for distinguishing dissimilar subcircuits. A suggested approach is to show the Part name assuming that the user is maintaining appropriate Part names. An even better approach is to change the subcircuit symbol using the Symbol Editor.
It is very important to understand the implications of the “Make Unique Type” command and the notion of subcircuit uniqueness before making any changes to subcircuits. The user should never modify a built-in EMTPWorks subcircuit based device before applying the “Make Unique Type” command to the device. A built-in device may be used by other devices and thus modify their contents if not made unique before changing. More details can be found by looking into the “Make Unique Type” index in “File>Help&Support>Help Documentation>Using EMTP -Tutorials and Reference”
EMTPWorks also keeps a separate attribute PartTemp for verifying uniqueness when the user makes mistakes by using existing part names or makes attribute changes without making a unique type.
Figure 29 Making a subcircuit unique
At this stage DEV2 is detached from DEV1 and FAULT_switch: it has its own copy of the original subcircuit. This is similar to making a copy of a function and renaming it to allow new contents, calling methods and usage.
If a subcircuit is available in a library and if it is dragged into the design and modified, then it becomes automatically unique: detached from the library copy. The user should change the symbol and make the new Part name visible to avoid confusion. Any new copy dragged in from the original library remains detached from the one modified in the design.
Locking the contents of a subcircuit after its creation is used for reminding the user about the potential repercussions of changes made in the subcircuit.
The contents of a subcircuit are only visible from the subcircuit. This means that two devices with the same name but in two different subcircuits do not actually have the same internal name. The same is true for internal signals, but not for interfacing signals. An interfacing signal is a signal connected to a subcircuit pin. Such a signal will keep its name when propagating downwards from parent circuit or subcircuit into lower level subcircuits.
It is allowed to add and delete subnetwork pins after subnetwork creation. When a signal line type is changed in a subnetwork after its creation, it will not propagate to its parent circuit. Such changes must be performed manually. Changing signal line types in the parent circuit must be also achieved by changing the subnetwork pin types manually.
In the current version of EMTPWorks, subcircuit control input and output pins are not automatically given an arrow tip. This is only achievable by modifying the subcircuit symbol using the Symbol Editor.
If after exiting a subcircuit, the user receives an error message, it means that there is pin interface corruption in the subcircuit and the resulting Netlist will also have problems. Error and warning messages should not be ignored before continuing.
After creating the subcircuit the right-click device menu item “Subcricuit Info” becomes enabled. The “Subcircuit Properties” has a mask tab with a default mask.
Masking is a powerful feature for data hiding and encapsulation. It provides a high-level access to subcircuit contents and allows creating user defined models.
Help on masking methods is available after selecting this option and looking into the Help tab of the default mask.
Subcircuits can contain subcircuits which can also contain subcircuits. This is called hierarchical design.
Subcircuits can have any number of pins. The pin names are used for connecting signals to subcircuit contents. It is also allowed to create subcircuits without pins. Subcircuits can contain devices explicitly recognized by EMTP®, generic symbols or drawing annotations.
When a signal is entering a subcircuit pin, its name is automatically propagated downwards into subcircuit contents. The subcircuit contents are only visible at its circuit level. The subcircuit has its own data scope. Each subcircuit has its own pathname. The device named SW1 in the Fault_switch subcircuit of Figure 26 is referred to as Fault_switch/SW1. If Fault_switch contained another subcircuit, named Inside, for example, then it would be also referred to as Fault_switch/Inside.
As long as the pin interface with subcircuit contents is correctly setup, there are no limitations in the internal subcircuit connectivity rules. In the example of Figure 30, a dummy device is created for shorting signals (nodes) together. Such a device can be used, for example, when it is not allowed to connect given signals together directly. It is used in Figure 31 (black square) for shorting BUS12a and BUS12b phases. Such a connection is not allowed otherwise.
Figure 30 Subcircuit for shorting signals: Node connecter
Figure 31 Shorting phase signals using a “Node connecter”
As understood in the previous section, a subcircuit may contain other subcircuits and the contained subcircuits may contain subcircuits, which results into a tree of subcircuits.
The best way to understand multilevel designs and Unique property of a subcircuit, is to view a subcircuit as a program function. A function is a program building block. A given function has only one version and can be called from other functions. If it is desired to change a function, then its name must be changed (made unique) in order to change its contents. A subcircuit level can be viewed as the body of the function.
The best way to illustrate this concept is to create a simple example.
Two subcircuits FUN1 and FUN2 are contained in a subcircuit TOPSUB.
Initially there is only one copy of TOPSUB in the memory. There is also only one copy of FUN1 and one copy of FUN2. Making any changes in the TOPSUB level is automatically reflected into all copies of TOPSUB. The same is true for FUN1 and FUN2.
If we make a copy of TOPSUB to create DEV4 it is like calling the same function tree from another location in the main program (the top circuit).
Making any changes in the DEV4 level is automatically reflected into DEV3 level. If it is desired to modify FUN2 in DEV3 without modifying FUN2 in DEV4, DEV3 must be first converted to become unique using the Make Unique Type procedure. Its level will then become separated in memory from DEV4. Then DEV2 can be also set to a new type using again Make Unique Type. This last action will detach DEV2 and allow modifying its level contents. Here is a visual representation of the steps. First DEV3 and DEV4 are sharing the same body:
Then DEV3 becomes unique, holds its own body, but continues sharing DEV1 and DEV2:
The next step detaches DEV2 by making it unique.
This means that if you want to modify a multilevel subcircuit to make it completely detached from others in all its levels and used subcircuits, you must modify all hierarchical levels.
It is also feasible to propagate uniqueness from top down for a subcircuit device containing other subcircuits by checking the option “Apply to subcircuit contents” on the Make Unique Type command panel.
One exception to the explanation above is when a subcircuit contained within a subcircuit is also available at the top level design (not in a subcircuit). In this case it is possible to create two separate definitions by making one of the subcircuits unique.
6 Search options
Search options are available from “Home>Find” or CTRL-F shortcut as shown in Figure 32.
The “Quick Find” method can be used by searching for devices and signals. The object name must entered into the indicated field. This function will also look at any name string and search for entered characters.
Figure 32 Search options
The Advanced Find method opens a tab on the right hand side and allows to select options. There are currently 4 options.
“EMTP Error Check” is the first option. It can be used to detect potential problems and verify error messages. Some warning messages can be inconsequential. The most common sources of errors are devices with incomplete data. Other important messages are related to mixed signal types.
“Find Devices by Name” allows searching for devices in the entire design (all circuit levels).
“Find Devices by Name (cc)” allows searching for devices in the current circuit level.
“Find Signals by Name” is for searching for signals in the current circuit level.
Entire circuits or circuit parts can be copied within the same design or into other designs. Due to the signal naming methods explained before, the user must be careful not to create virtual connections or duplicate device names at the same circuit level.
Pasting options are selectable from the “Home>Clipboard>Paste Special” menu.
To copy circuits into other applications is achieved by simply selecting the desired circuit section and pasting. Best quality is achieved by copying at the highest zoom level in EMTPWorks drawing pages.
If a circuit contains text annotations, then it is required to select a paste-special option in the target application and specify “Picture (Enhanced Metafile)”.
It is also allowed to copy into a circuit page from other applications. A useful application is the copying of mathematical equations or other text annotations from separate tools.
2 Scripting device drawings (symbols). A set of extensions allows modifying or redrawing devices symbols based on data or user requests. It includes drawing basic shapes, coloring, adding or deleting pins.
3 Scripting design signal properties.
4 Scripting library functions.
5 Collecting and changing design data.
6 A large set of data file functions is used to provide data file services to devices.
The scripts can be called from script files associated to objects. As indicated above, the Script.Open.Dev attribute of a devices is the script started when the device is double-clicked. Advanced users can also create their own scripts specially useful for sophistication in subcircuit masking.
It is a small program for making the names of all selected signals visible. The script is executed for the last opened (clicked on) tab.
More sophistication is added by scripting library functions. This example programs a device switcher:
EMTP®-EMTPWorks provides a built-in set of libraries. The user should not save data into these libraries, but should create own separate libraries. A default user-accessible empty library Work.clf is available. It is strongly recommended not to save user-defined libraries into the EMTPWorks program directory. Library files carry the extension “.clf” and can be saved anywhere on the computer and accessed from the EMTPWorks “File>Open” menu or by double-clicking on the library file name. The default set of libraries automatically loaded at EMTPWorks startup is found under the EMTPWorks directory “Libs”. The default set is read-only.